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 Tugas Module 2 CCNA 2 u/ kelas A (Operating Cisco IOS)

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PostSubyek: Tugas Module 2 CCNA 2 u/ kelas A (Operating Cisco IOS)   Tue Apr 01, 2008 1:37 am

Berikut tugas untuk kelas A Angk. 2007

Translate artikel di bawah ini, (Jangan hanya di translate, tapi dipahami dan dimengerti). Tugas dikumpul di forum ini paling lambat tanggal 4 April 2008 (23.59 WITA). Perkuliahan akan dilanjutkan tanggal 5 April 2008 (12.00 WITA di Ruang Vicon).

Tugas 1 :
As with a computer, a router or switch cannot function without an operating system. Cisco calls its operating system the Cisco Internetwork Operating System or Cisco IOS. It is the embedded software architecture in all of the Cisco routers and is also the operating system of the Catalyst switches. Without an operating system, the hardware does not have any capabilities. The Cisco IOS provides the following network services:

* Basic routing and switching functions
* Reliable and secure access to networked resources
* Network scalability

The Cisco IOS software uses a command-line interface (CLI) as the traditional console environment. The IOS is a core technology that extends across most of the Cisco product line. Its operation details may vary on different internetworking devices.

This environment is accessible through several methods. One way to access the CLI is through a console session. A console uses a low speed serial connection directly from a computer or terminal to the console connection on the router. Another way to access a CLI session is by use of a dialup connection using a modem or null modem connected to the router AUX port. Neither of these methods require that the router have any network services configured. Another method of accessing a CLI session is to Telnet to the router. To establish a Telnet session to the router, at least one interface must be configured with an IP address, and virtual terminal sessions must be configured for login and passwords.


-----------------

Tugas 2 :


The Cisco command-line interface (CLI) uses a hierarchical structure. This structure requires entry into different modes to accomplish particular tasks. For example, to configure a router interface, the user must enter interface configuration mode. From interface configuration mode, all configurations entered apply only to that particular interface. Each configuration mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt and allows only commands that are appropriate for that mode.

The IOS provides a command interpreter service known as the command executive (EXEC). After each command is entered, the EXEC validates and executes the command.

As a security feature the Cisco IOS software separates the EXEC sessions into two access levels. These levels are user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode is also known as enable mode. The following are the features of the user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode:

* The user EXEC mode allows only a limited number of basic monitoring commands. This is often referred to as a “view only” mode. The user EXEC level does not allow any commands that might change the configuration of the router. The user EXEC mode can be identified by the “>" prompt.
* The privileged EXEC mode accesses all router commands. This mode can be configured to require a password from the user before accessing it. For added protection, it can also be configured to require a user ID. This allows only authorized users to access the router. Configuration and management commands require that the network administrator be at the privileged EXEC level. Global configuration mode and all other more specific configuration modes can only be reached from the privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode can be identified by the "#" prompt.

To access the privileged EXEC level from the user EXEC level, enter the enable command at the “>” prompt. If a password is configured, the router will then ask for that password. For security reasons, a Cisco network device will not show the password that is entered. When the correct password is entered, the router prompt changes to “#”, indicating that the user is now at the privileged EXEC level. Entering a question mark (?) at the privileged EXEC level will reveal many more command options than those available at the user EXEC level.

--------------------

Tugas 3 :
Cisco provides IOS images for devices spanning a wide range of network product platforms.

To optimize the Cisco IOS software that these various platforms require, Cisco is working to develop many different Cisco IOS software images. Each image represents a different feature set that serves the various device platforms, available memory resources, and customer needs.

Although there are numerous IOS images for different Cisco device models and feature sets, the basic configuration command structure is the same. The configuration and troubleshooting skills acquired on any one device apply across a wide range of products.

The naming convention for the different Cisco IOS releases contains three parts:

* The platform on which the image runs
* The special features supported in the image
* Where the image runs and whether it has been zipped or compressed

Specific IOS features can be selected using the Cisco Software Advisor. The Cisco Software Advisor is an interactive tool that provides the most current information and allows the selection of options that meet network requirements.

One of the main considerations when selecting a new IOS image is compatibility with the router flash and RAM memory. In general, the newer the release and the more features that it provides, the more memory it requires. Use the show version command on the Cisco device to check the current image and available flash. The Cisco support site has tools available to help determine the amount of flash and RAM required for each image.

Before installing a new Cisco IOS software image on the router, check to see if the router meets the memory requirements for that image. To see the amount of RAM, issue the show version command:

… <output omitted>… cisco 1721 (68380) processor (revision C) with 3584K/512K bytes of memory.

This line shows how much main and shared memory is installed in the router. Some platforms use a fraction of DRAM as shared memory. The memory requirements take this into account, so both numbers have to be added together to find the amount of DRAM installed on the router.

To find out the amount of flash memory, issue the show flash command:

GAD#show flash
… <output omitted>…
15998976 bytes total (10889728 bytes free)

---------------------------


Tugas 4 :

The Cisco IOS devices have three distinct operating environments or modes:

* ROM monitor
* Boot ROM
* Cisco IOS

The startup process of the router normally loads into RAM and executes one of these operating environments. The configuration register setting can be used by the system administrator to control the default start up mode for the router.

The ROM monitor performs the bootstrap process and provides low-level functionality and diagnostics. It is used to recover from system failures and to recover a lost password. The ROM monitor cannot be accessed through any of the network interfaces. It can only be accessed by way of a direct, physical connection through the console port.

When the router is running in boot ROM mode, only a limited subset of the Cisco IOS feature set is available. Boot ROM allows write operations to flash memory and is used primarily to replace the Cisco IOS image that is stored in flash. The Cisco IOS image can be modified in boot ROM by using the copy tftp flash command, which copies an IOS image stored on a TFTP server into the flash memory of the router.

The normal operation of a router requires use of the full Cisco IOS image as stored in flash. In some devices, the IOS is executed directly from flash. However, most Cisco routers require a copy of the IOS to be loaded into RAM and also executed from RAM. Some IOS images are stored in flash in a compressed format and have to be expanded when copied to RAM.

To see the IOS image and version that is running, use the show version command, which also indicates the configuration register setting. The show flash command is used to verify that the system has sufficient memory to load a new Cisco IOS image.



Regards....
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PostSubyek: Re: Tugas Module 2 CCNA 2 u/ kelas A (Operating Cisco IOS)   Wed Apr 02, 2008 12:54 pm

Tugas 2 :

The Cisco command-line interface (CLI) uses a hierarchical structure. This structure requires entry into different modes to accomplish particular tasks. For example, to configure a router interface, the user must enter interface configuration mode. From interface configuration mode, all configurations entered apply only to that particular interface. Each configuration mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt and allows only commands that are appropriate for that mode.

The IOS provides a command interpreter service known as the command executive (EXEC). After each command is entered, the EXEC validates and executes the command.

As a security feature the Cisco IOS software separates the EXEC sessions into two access levels. These levels are user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode is also known as enable mode. The following are the features of the user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode:

* The user EXEC mode allows only a limited number of basic monitoring commands. This is often referred to as a “view only” mode. The user EXEC level does not allow any commands that might change the configuration of the router. The user EXEC mode can be identified by the “>" prompt.
* The privileged EXEC mode accesses all router commands. This mode can be configured to require a password from the user before accessing it. For added protection, it can also be configured to require a user ID. This allows only authorized users to access the router. Configuration and management commands require that the network administrator be at the privileged EXEC level. Global configuration mode and all other more specific configuration modes can only be reached from the privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode can be identified by the "#" prompt.

To access the privileged EXEC level from the user EXEC level, enter the enable command at the “>” prompt. If a password is configured, the router will then ask for that password. For security reasons, a Cisco network device will not show the password that is entered. When the correct password is entered, the router prompt changes to “#”, indicating that the user is now at the privileged EXEC level. Entering a question mark (?) at the privileged EXEC level will reveal many more command options than those available at the user EXEC level.

--------------------

Cisco comman-line ( CLI ) menggunakan struktur hierarchical. Struktur ini membutuhkan masukan entry dalam mode yang berbeda untuk melengakapi fungsi-fungsi tertentu. Sebagai contoh, untuk mengkonfigurasi interface router ,user harus masuk ke mode konfigurasi interface. Dari mode konfigurasi interface ,semua konfigurasi yang telah dimasukkan hanya dapat diaplikasikan di interface tersebut. setiap mode konfigurasi ditandai dengan sebuah prompt distinctive dan hanya mengijinkan perintah yang sesuai di mode tersebut


IOS menyediakan perintah atau service interpreter yang dikenal sebagai comman executive ( EXEC ) .setelah setiap perintah dimasukkan,EXEC akan memvalidasi dan mengexekusi perintah tersebut.
sebagai feature keamanan sofware cisco IOS membagi mode EXEC menjadi dua tingkatan akses. tingkatan tersebut adalah mode user EXEC dan MODe priveledge exec. mode priveledge exec dikenal juga dengan mode enable. berikut adalah feature dari mode user EXEC dan mode priveledge EXEC:

*user EXEC mode mengijinkan hanya sebatas perintah monitoring saja.ini adalah mode yang hanya akan menampilkan. User EXEC tidak dapat mengijinkan perintah yang dapat merubah konfigurasi router.User EXEC mode ditandai dengan prompt ">".
*Priveleged EXEC mode akan mengakses semua perintah perintah router. Mode ini dapat dikonfigurasi dengan membutuhkan password dari user sebelum mengaksesnya. untuk tambahan keamanan, dapat juga dikonfigurasi dengan sebuah ID user. ini hanya mengijinkan user-user yang memiliki ijin akses untuk mengakses router.perintah-perintah Konfigurasi dan managemant yang dibutuhkan administrator jaringan ada di priveledge EXEc level. Global konfigurasi mode dan semua mode konfigurasi hanya dapat dicapai dari priveledge mode. priveledge EXEC mode ditandai dengan prompt "#"

untuk mengakses level priveledge EXEC dari level user EXEC, masukjkan perintah enable pada ">" prompt. jika password dikonfigurasi, router tersebut akan menanyakan password tersebut. Dengan alasan keamanan, sebuah peralatan jaringan Cisco tidak akan menampilkan password yang telah dimasukkan. prompt router akan berubah menjadi "#" menandakan user tersebut skarang berada di level priveledge EXEC. masukkan tanda tanay ( ? ) pada level priveledge EXEC untuk menampilkan lebih banyak pilihan perintah yang tersedia pada level priveledge EXEC
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PostSubyek: Re: Tugas Module 2 CCNA 2 u/ kelas A (Operating Cisco IOS)   Wed Apr 02, 2008 1:02 pm

Tugas 2 :

ahmad zuhri ( ahmad_zuhri@yahoo.com )
muhammad sadli (sadli85@yahoo.com )


The Cisco command-line interface (CLI) uses a hierarchical structure. This structure requires entry into different modes to accomplish particular tasks. For example, to configure a router interface, the user must enter interface configuration mode. From interface configuration mode, all configurations entered apply only to that particular interface. Each configuration mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt and allows only commands that are appropriate for that mode.

The IOS provides a command interpreter service known as the command executive (EXEC). After each command is entered, the EXEC validates and executes the command.

As a security feature the Cisco IOS software separates the EXEC sessions into two access levels. These levels are user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode is also known as enable mode. The following are the features of the user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode:

* The user EXEC mode allows only a limited number of basic monitoring commands. This is often referred to as a “view only” mode. The user EXEC level does not allow any commands that might change the configuration of the router. The user EXEC mode can be identified by the “>" prompt.
* The privileged EXEC mode accesses all router commands. This mode can be configured to require a password from the user before accessing it. For added protection, it can also be configured to require a user ID. This allows only authorized users to access the router. Configuration and management commands require that the network administrator be at the privileged EXEC level. Global configuration mode and all other more specific configuration modes can only be reached from the privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode can be identified by the "#" prompt.

To access the privileged EXEC level from the user EXEC level, enter the enable command at the “>” prompt. If a password is configured, the router will then ask for that password. For security reasons, a Cisco network device will not show the password that is entered. When the correct password is entered, the router prompt changes to “#”, indicating that the user is now at the privileged EXEC level. Entering a question mark (?) at the privileged EXEC level will reveal many more command options than those available at the user EXEC level.

--------------------

Cisco comman-line ( CLI ) menggunakan struktur hierarchical. Struktur ini membutuhkan masukan entry dalam mode yang berbeda untuk melengakapi fungsi-fungsi tertentu. Sebagai contoh, untuk mengkonfigurasi interface router ,user harus masuk ke mode konfigurasi interface. Dari mode konfigurasi interface ,semua konfigurasi yang telah dimasukkan hanya dapat diaplikasikan di interface tersebut. setiap mode konfigurasi ditandai dengan sebuah prompt distinctive dan hanya mengijinkan perintah yang sesuai di mode tersebut


IOS menyediakan perintah atau service interpreter yang dikenal sebagai comman executive ( EXEC ) .setelah setiap perintah dimasukkan,EXEC akan memvalidasi dan mengexekusi perintah tersebut.
sebagai feature keamanan sofware cisco IOS membagi mode EXEC menjadi dua tingkatan akses. tingkatan tersebut adalah mode user EXEC dan MODe priveledge exec. mode priveledge exec dikenal juga dengan mode enable. berikut adalah feature dari mode user EXEC dan mode priveledge EXEC:

*user EXEC mode mengijinkan hanya sebatas perintah monitoring saja.ini adalah mode yang hanya akan menampilkan. User EXEC tidak dapat mengijinkan perintah yang dapat merubah konfigurasi router.User EXEC mode ditandai dengan prompt ">".
*Priveleged EXEC mode akan mengakses semua perintah perintah router. Mode ini dapat dikonfigurasi dengan membutuhkan password dari user sebelum mengaksesnya. untuk tambahan keamanan, dapat juga dikonfigurasi dengan sebuah ID user. ini hanya mengijinkan user-user yang memiliki ijin akses untuk mengakses router.perintah-perintah Konfigurasi dan managemant yang dibutuhkan administrator jaringan ada di priveledge EXEc level. Global konfigurasi mode dan semua mode konfigurasi hanya dapat dicapai dari priveledge mode. priveledge EXEC mode ditandai dengan prompt "#"

untuk mengakses level priveledge EXEC dari level user EXEC, masukjkan perintah enable pada ">" prompt. jika password dikonfigurasi, router tersebut akan menanyakan password tersebut. Dengan alasan keamanan, sebuah peralatan jaringan Cisco tidak akan menampilkan password yang telah dimasukkan. prompt router akan berubah menjadi "#" menandakan user tersebut skarang berada di level priveledge EXEC. masukkan tanda tanay ( ? ) pada level priveledge EXEC untuk menampilkan lebih banyak pilihan perintah yang tersedia pada level priveledge EXEC
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PostSubyek: Re: Tugas Module 2 CCNA 2 u/ kelas A (Operating Cisco IOS)   Today at 1:38 am

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